Archaeology and Monumental Monitoring

Archaeology and Monumental Monitoring

Salvatore Piro



Barone, P.M., Di Matteo, A., Graziano, F., Mattei, E., and Pettinelli, E. 2010. GPR application to the structural control of historical buildings: two case studies in Rome, Italy 2006-9, Near Surface Geophysics EAGE, 8(5), 407-413

Bartroli, R. S., Garcia, E. G., and Tamba, R., 2011. GPR imaging of Structural Elements: Case study of the restoration project of the modernist historic site of Sant Pau, ISAP proceedings of Archaeological Prospection, Izmir, Turkey.

Batey, R.A., 1987, Subsurface interface radar at Sepphoris, Israel, 1985. Journal of Field Archaeology, Vol. 14, pp. 1–8.

Bevan, B. W., and J. Kenyon, 1975, Ground Penetrating Radar for Historical Archaeology, MASCA, Newsletter 11(2):2-7.

Bevan, B., 1991. The Search for Graves. Geophysics 56, 1310-1319.

Campana, S., and Piro, S., 2009. Seeing the Unseen: Geophysics and Landscape Archaeology, CRC Press, ISBN 978-0-415-44721-8, Netherlands.

Carrara E., Carrozzo Mt., Fedi M., Florio G., Negri S., Paoletti V., Paolillo G., Quarta T., Rapolla A., Roberti N. (2001) – “Resistivity and radar surveys at the archaeological site of Ercolano.” – Journal of Environmental and Engineering Geophysical Society 6(3), 123-132.

Castaldo R., Crocco L., Fedi M., Garofalo B., Persico R., Rossi A., Soldovieri F., 2009. GPR Microwave Tomography for Diagnostic of Archaeological Sites: the Case of a high-way construction in Pontecagnano (Southern Italy), Archaeological Prospection, vol. 16, pp.203-217.

Chianese D., D’emilio M., Di Salvia S., et al. (2004) – “Magnetic Mapping, Ground Penetrating Radar Surveys and magnetic susceptibility. Measurements for the study of archaeological site of Serra di Vaglio ( southern Italy).” Journal of Archaeological Science 31. pp 633-643.

Clarke C.M., Utsi E., Utsi V. (1999): Ground penetrating radar investigations at North Ballachulish Moss, Highland, Scotland. Archaeological Prospection, vol. 6, n.2, pp 107-121.

Conyers L.B. (1995): The use of ground-penetrating radar to map the buried structures and landscape of the Ceren site, El Salvador. Geoarchaeology, vol. 10, pp. 275-299.

Conyers, L.B. and Lucius, J.E., 1996, Velocity analysis in archaeological ground penetrating radar studies. Archaeological Prospection, Vol. 3, pp. 25–38.

Conyers, L. B. and D. Goodman, 1997. Ground Penetrating Radar: An Introduction for Archaeologists, Alta Mira Press, Sage Publications, ISBN 0-7619-8927-7.

Conyers, L.B. and Cameron, C.M., 1998, Ground-penetrating radar techniques and three dimensional computer mapping in the American Southwest. Journal of Field Archaeology, Vol. 25, pp. 417–430.

Conyers, L.B., Ernenwein, E.G., and Bedal, L.A., 2002. Ground-penetrating radar discovery at Petra, Jordan. Antiquity 76, 339-40.

Conyers L. B. 2004. Ground Penetrating Radar for Archaeology. Alta Mira Press, Sage Publications, ISBN 0-7591-0773-4.

Conyers, L.B., 2006. Ground-penetrating radar techniques to discover and map historic graves. Historical Archaeology 40, 64-73.

Conyers, L.B. and Connell, S., 2007, The applicability of using ground-penetrating radar to discover and map buried archaeological sites in Hawaii. Hawaiian Archaeology Journal, Vol. 11, pp. 62–77.

Cosentino P. L., Capizzi P., Martorana R., Messina P. and S. Schiavone, 2011. From geophysics to microgeophysics for engineering and cultural heritage, International Journal of Geophysics, 1-8.

Dalan, R. A., Bevan, B., Goodman, D., Lynch, D., De Vore, S., Admek, S., 2011. The measurement and analysis of depth in archaeological geophysics: test at the Biesterfeldt site, USA, Archaeological Prospection, DOI 10.1002/arp.

DeVore, S.L., 1990, Ground-penetrating radar as a survey tool in archaeological investigations: An example from Fort Laramie national historic site. The Wyoming Archaeologist, Vol. 33, pp. 23–28.

Dolphin, L.T., Tanzi, J.D. and Beatty, W.B., 1978, Radar probing of Victorio Peak, New Mexico. Geophysics, Vol. 43, pp. 1441–1448.

Doolittle, J.A. and N.F. Bellantoni, 2010. The search for graves with ground-penetrating radar in Connecticut. Journal of Archaeological Science 37, 941-949.

Edwards, W., and Okita, M. 2006. "Japan's Oldest Keyhole Tomb(?): The Prospection Program at Tenri University and GPR Results from the Do-no-ushiro Mound," Bunkazai to tansa[Journal of the Archaeological Prospection Society of Japan] 8(1, 9-16).

Fischer, P.M., Follin S.G. and Ulriksen, P., 1980, Subsurface interface radar survey at Hala Sultan Tekke, Cyprus, in Fischer, P.M. (ed.), Application of Technical Devices in Archaeology: Studies in Mediterranean Archaeology, Vol. 63, pp. 48–51.

Francese, R.G., Finzi, E., Morelli, G., 2009. 3-D high-resolution multi-channel radar investigation of a Roman village in Northern Italy. Journal of Applied Geophysics, Volume 67, Issue 1, Pages 44-51.

Gaffney, C., and Gater, J., 2003. Revealing the Buried Past: Geophysics for Archaeologists. Tempus Publishing Ltd, Gloucestershire, ISBN 0-7524-2556-0.

Gaffney V., Patterson H., Roberts P., Piro S., 2003. Forum Novum – Vescovio: from Roman town to bishop’s seat. In Lazio & Sabina, 1, 119-126. Soprintendenza per i Beni Archeologici del Lazio (Roma).

Gaffney V., Patterson H., Piro S., Goodman D., Nishimura Y., 2004. Multimethodological approach to study and characterise Forum Novum (Vescovio, Central Italy). Archaeological Prospection, Vol. 11, pp. 201-212.

Goodman, D., and Y. Nishimura, 1993. A Ground-radar view of Japanese Burial Mounds: Antiquity, 67:349-354.

Goodman, D., 1994. Ground-penetrating radar simulation in Engineering and Archaeology: GEOPHYSICS, 59:224-232.

Goodman, D., Y. Nishimura and J. D. Rogers, 1995. GPR time slices in archaeological prospection: Archaeological Prospection, 2:85-89.

Goodman, D., Nishimura, Y., Okita, M. and Hongo, H., 2001, 3-D GPR amplitude rendering of Saitobaru Burial Mound #13, in Filtering, Optimization and Modelling of Geophysical Data in Archaeological Prospecting: Politecnico di Milano, Fondaazione ing. Carlo Maurilio Lerici, 50th Anniversary issue, pp. 93–101.

Goodman, D., S. Piro, and Y. Nishimura, 2002. GPR time slice images of the Villa of Emperor Trajanus, Arcinazzo, Italy (52-117), Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Ground Penetrating Radar, Eds. Koppenjan, S., and H. Lee, 268-272.

Goodman, D., S. Piro, Y. Nishimura, H. Patterson, and V. Gaffney, 2004a. Discovery of a 1st century AD Roman amphitheater and other structures at the Forum Novum by GPR.Journal of Environmental & Engineering Geophysics, v9(1), 35-41.

Goodman, D., Schneider, K., Barner, M., Bergstrom, V., Piro, S. and Nishimura, Y., 2004b, Implementation of GPS navigation and 3D volume imaging of ground penetrating radar for identification of subsurface archaeology. In Proceedings, Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems, Environmental and Engineering Geophysical Society, Denver, pp. 806–810.

Goodman, D., Steinberg, J., Damiata, B., Nishimura, Y., Hongo, H., Higashi, N. and Schneider, K, 2006a. GPR Overlay Analysis for Archaeological Prospection. Proceedings of International Conference on Ground Penetrating Radar, Ohio State University.

Goodman, D., Nishimura, Y., Hongo, H and Noriaki N., 2006b. Correcting for Topography and the Tilt of the GPR Antenna. Archaeological Prospection , 13, 157-161.

Goodman D., Schneider K., Piro S., Nishimura Y. Pantel A.G., 2007. Ground Penetrating Radar Advances in Subsurfaces Imaging for Archaeology. In “Remote Sensing in Archaeology”, Ed. J. Wiseman and F. El-Baz; ISBN 978-0-387-44453-6. Chapter 15, pp. 367-386.

Goodman, D, Piro, S., Schneider, K., Nishimura, Y., Hongo, H., Higashi, N., Steinberg, J., and Damiata, B., 2009. GPR Archaeometry. In GPR Theory and Applications, ed. H. Jol, Elsevier, ISBN 978-0-444-53348-7, pp. 479-508.

Goodman, D., Piro, S., 2009. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) surveys at Aiali (Grosseto), in Seeing the Un-seen. Geophysics and Landscape Archaeology, (Campana and PiroEd.s), 297-302. Taylor and Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-44721-8.

Goodman, D., Novo, A., Morelli, G., Kutrubes, D., Piro, S., and Lorenzo, H., 2011. Advances in GPR Imaging with Multi-Channel Radar Systems from Engineering to Archaeology, proceedings of the SAGEEP 2011, Charleston, S.C., ISBN: 978-1-61782-885-0, 416-422.

Goodman D., Piro S., 2013. GPR Remote sensing in Archaeology. Springer (Ed), ISBN 978-3-642-31856-6, ISBN 978-3-642-31857-3 (eBook), DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-31857-3. Springer, Berlin, (Germany).

Grasmueck, M. and Weger, R., 2002, 3D GPR reveals complex internal structure of Pleistocene neolitic sandbar. The Leading Edge, July, pp. 634–639.

Grasmueck, M., Weger R., Horstmeyer. 2004. Three-dimensional ground-penetrating radar imaging of sedimentary structures, fractures, and archaeological features at submeter resolution. Geology 32(11): 933-936.

Kadioglu S. and Y. K. Kadioglu, 2010. Picturing internal fractures of historical statues using ground penetrating radar method, Advances in Geosciences, 24, 23-34.

King, J A., Bevan B. W., Hurry, R. J., 1993. The Reliability of Geophysical Surveys at Historic Period Cemeteries: An Example from the Plains Cemetery, Mechanicsville, Maryland. Historical Archaeology 27(3):4–16.

Kobayashi Y., Okamoto K., Yoda M. (1996): Exploration of archaeological structures in deeper subsurface by means of directive antenna. (Journal of Applied Geophysics, vol. 35,n. 2-3, pp. 175-183).

Kvamme, K.L., 2001. Current Practices in Archaeogeophysics: Magnetics, Resistivity, Conductivity, and Ground-Penetrating Radar, in Goldberg, P., Holliday, V.T. and Ferring, C.R. (eds.), Earth Sciences and Archaeology, Kluwer Academic/Plenum Plublishers, New York, 353-384.

Imai, T., Sakayama, T. and Kanemori, T., 1987, Use of ground-probing radar and resistivity surveys for archaeological investigations. Geophysics, Vol. 52, pp. 127–150.

Leckebusch J. and Peikert R., 2001. Investigating the true resolution and three-dimensional capabilities of ground-penetrating radar data in archaeological surveys: measurements in a sand box. Archaeological Prospection 8, 29–40.

Leckebusch, J, 2003. Ground penetrating radar: a modern three-dimensional prospection method, Archaeological Prospection, v10, 213-240.

Leckebusch J. 2005. Use of antenna arrays for GPR surveying in archaeology. Near Surface Geophysics 3, 107–115.

Leckebusch J. and Rychener J. 2005. Three-dimensional comparison between GPR and excavation results. Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Archaeological Prospection, Rome, 223-226.

Leckebusch, J., 2011. Problems and Solutions with GPR Interpretation: Depolarization and GPR data Continuity, Archaeological Prospection, 18(4), 303-308

Leucci G. (Dec. 2002): Ground-penetrating radar survey to map the location of buried structures under two churches. Archaeological Prospection, vol.9, n.4, pp. 217-228.

Leucci G., Persico R., Soldovieri F., 2007. “Detection of Fracture From GPR data: the case history of the Cathedral of Otranto”, Journal of Geophysics and Engineering, vol. 4, pp. 452-461.

Leucci G., Masini N., Persico R., Soldovieri F., 2011.” GPR and sonic tomography for structural restoration : the case of the Cathedral of Tricarico”, Journal of Geophysics and Engineering, vol. 8, S76-S92.

Linford N. T. and Linford P. K. 2004. Short Report, Ground Penetrating Radar Survey over a Roman Building at Groudwell Ridge, Blunsdon St Andrew, Swindon, UK. Archaeological Prospection, Vol. 11,49-55.

Linford, N., Linford, P., Martin, L. and Payne, A. 2010. Stepped frequency ground-penetrating radar survey with a multi-element array antenna: Results from field application on archaeological sites Archaeological Prospection, 17: 187–198.

McCann W. A. (Jun. 1995): GPR and archaeology in Central London. Archaeological Prospection, vol. 2, n. 2, pp. 155-166.

Malagodi S., Piro S., Orlando L., 1994. Improvement of signal to noise ratio of Ground Penetrating Radar using CMP acquisition and data processing. Proceedings of 5th International Conference on Ground Penetrating Radar, 12-16 Giugno, V.2, pp 689 - 699 Kitchener, Ontario, Canada.

Malagodi S., Orlando L., Piro S., Rosso F., 1996a. Location of archaeological structures using GPR method: three-dimensional data acquisition and radar signal processing. Archaeological Prospection, Vol. 3, 13-23.

Malagodi S., Orlando L., Piro S., 1996b. Approaches to increase resolution of radar signal. Proceedings of 6th International Conference on Ground Penetreting Radar; pp 283-288. Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan.

Masini N., Persico R., Guida A., Pagliuca A., 2008. “A Multifrequency and Multisensor Approach for the Study and the Restoration of Monuments: the Case of the Cathedral of Matera.”, Advances in Geoscience, vol. 18, pp. 1-6.

Masini N, Persico R., Rizzo E, Calia A, Giannotta M. T., Quarta G., Pagliuca A., 2010. “Integrated Techniques for Analysis and Monitoring of Historical Monuments: the case of S.Giovanni al Sepolcro in Brindisi (Southern Italy).” Near Surface Geophysics, vol. 8 (5), pp. 423-432.

Masini N, Persico R, Rizzo E. (2012), “Some Examples of GPR Prospecting for Monitoring of the Monumental Heritage”, Journal of Geophysics and Engineering, vol.7, pp.190–199.

Milligan, R. and Atkin, M., 1993, The use of ground-probing radar within a digital environment on archaeological sites, in Andresen, J., Madsen, T. and Scollar, I., eds., Computing the Past: Computer Application and Quantitative methods in Archaeology: Aarhus, Denmark, Aarhus University Press, pp. 285–291.

Neubauer, W., Eder-Hinterleitner, A., Seren, S.S. and Melichar, P., 1999, Integrated geophysical prospection of Roman Villas in Austria, in Archaeological Prospection, 3rd International Conference on Archaeological Prospection, Munich, Sept., Bayerisches Landesamt fur Denkmalpflege, pp. 62–64.

Neubauer W., Eder-Hinterleitner A., Seren S. and Melichar P. 2002. Georadar in the Roman Civil Town Carnuntum, Austria: An Approach for Archaeological Interpretation of GPR Data. Archaeological Prospection 9, 135-156.

Nishimura, Y. and Kamei, H., 1990, A study in the application of geophysical survey, in Pernifka, E. andWagner, G., eds., Proceedings, Archaeometry ’90 Conference, Heidelberg, April, pp. 757–765.

Nishimura, Y. and D. Goodman, 2000, Ground penetrating radar survey at Wroxeter, Archaeological Prospection, 7: 101-105.

Novo, A., Lorenzo, H., Rial, f., Pereira, M. and Solla M., 2008. Ultra-dense grid strategies for 3D GPR in Archaeology, proceeding in the 12th International Conference on Ground Penetrating Radar, Birmingham, England.

Novo, A.,Sala, R., García, E.,Tamba, R.,Muñoz, F.,Solla, M., and Lorenzo, H., 2009. From Celt iberians to Romans: Combined geophysical (3D GPR and fluxgate gradiometer) prospection for the archaeological characterization of Castro de la Magdalena (Leon, Spain), in Archaeo Sciences, Memoire de sol, espace de hommes, ISBN 978-2-7535-0943-6, 121-124.

Orlando L. (2007), “Georadar Data Collection, Anomaly Shape and Archaeological Interpretation - A Case Study from Central Italy,” Archaeological Prospection, vol.14, pp.213–335.

Orlando L., Soldovieri F., 2008. Two different approaches for georadar data processing: A case study in archaeological prospecting. . Journal of Applied Geophysics vol. 64 issue 1-2, p. 1-13.

Orlando L., Slob E., 2009. Using multicomponent GPR to monitor cracks in a historical building. . Journal of Applied Geophysics vol. 67 issue 4, p. 327-334.

Orlando L., Renzi B., 2013. Non-destructive Testing for the Characterization of Moai Statues (Easter Island, Chile). Archaeological Prospection vol. 20 issue 1, p. 23-37.

Perez-Gracia, V., Caselles, O., Clapes, J., Osorio, R., Canas, J.A., and Pujades, L.G., Radar exploration applied to historical buildlings: a case study of the Marqes de Llio Palace, in Barcelona (Spain), Engineering Failure Analysis, 16(4), 1039-1050.

Pipan M., Finetti I., Ferigo F. (1996): Multi-fold GPR techniques with applications to high-resolution studies: two case histories. (European Journal of Env. and Eng. Geophysics, vol. 1, pp. 83-103)

Pipan M., Baradello L., Forte E., Prizzon A., Finetti I. (1999): 2-D and 3-D processing and interpretation of multi-fold ground penetrating radar data: a case history from an archaeological site. Journal of Applied Geophysics, vol. 41, n. 2-3, pp. 271-292)

Piro S., Goodman D. and Nishimura Y. 2003. The study and characterization of Emperor Traiano’s villa using high-resolution integrated geophysical surveys. Archaeological Prospection 10, 1-25.

Piro S., Peloso D., Gabrielli R., 2007. Integrated geophysical and topographical investigations in the territory of ancient Tarquinia (Viterbo, Central Italy). Archaeological Prospection, Vol. 14:3, 191-201.

Piro S., Ceraudo G., Zamuner D., 2011. Integrated geophysical and archaeological investigations of Aquinum in Frosinone, Italy. Archaeological Prospection, 18: 127-138. DOI: 10.1002/arp409.

Piro S., Campana S., 2012. GPR investigation in different archaeological sites in Tuscany (Italy). Analysis and comparison of the obtained results. Near Surface Geophysics, 2012, 10, pp. 47-56, doi:10.3997/1873-0604.2011047.

Piscitelli S., Rizzo E., Cristallo F., Lapenna V., Crocco L., Persico R., Soldovieri F. GPR and Microwave Tomography for Detecting shallow Cavities in the Historical Area of Sassi of Matera (Southern Italy), Near Surface Geophysics, vol. 5, pp. 275-285, 2007.

Sambuelli L., Calzoni C., Stocco S. and R. Rege, 2009, Geophysical measurements on the occasion of the moving of an ancient Egyptian sculpture, Proceedings 28th GNGTS Meeting, Trieste, 16 – 19 November, pp. 595-599.

Sambuelli L., Socco L.V., Brecciaroli L.(1999): Acquisition and processing of electric, magnetic and GPR data on a Roman site (Victimulae, Salussola, Biella). Journal of Applied Geophysics, vol. 41, n. 2-3, pp. 189-204.

Sambuelli L., Bohm G., Capizzi P., Cardarelli E., and P. Cosentino, 2011. Comparison between GPR measurements and ultrasonic tomography with different inversion algorithms: an applicationto the base of an ancient Egyptian sculpture, Journal of Geophysics and Engineering, 8, 106-116.

Sassen, D and Creasman, P, 2012. 3-D GPR imaging on Difficult Terrain: Examples from the Pyramid Complex of Pharoah Senwosret II and the Theban Temple of Femal Pharaoh Tausret (Egypt), SAGEEP Proceedings, Tucson, Arizona.

Savvaidis A., Tsokas G., Liritzis Y., Apostolou M. (June 1999): The location and mapping of ancient ruins on the castle of Lefkas (Greece) by resistivity and GPR methods. (Archaeological Prospection, vol. 6, n.2, pp 63-73).

Seren S., Eder-Hinterleitner A., Neubauer W. and Groh S. 2004. Combined high-resolution magnetics and GPR surveys of the roman town of Flavia Solva. Near Surface Geophysics 2, 63–68.

Seren, S., Eder-Hinterleitner, A., Neubauer, W., Löcker, K. andMelichar, P., 2007. Extended Comparison of Different GPR Systems and Antenna Configurations at the Roman Site Carnuntum, Near Surface Geophysics, 5 (6), 389-394.

Soldovieri F., Utsi E., Persico R., Alani A.M., 2012. Imaging of Scarce Archaeological Remains using microwave tomographic depictions of Ground Penetrating Radar Data. International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, art. ID: 580454, doi: 10.1155/2012/580454.

Solla, M., Lorenzo, H., Rial, F.I., Novo, A., Riveiro, B, Masonry arch bridges evaluation by means of GPR, Ground Penetrating Radar, 2010 13th International Conference on GPR, Lecce Italy, ISBN 978-1-4244-4604-9, p1-6.

Sternberg B.K., McGill J.W. (1995): Archaeology studies in southern Arizona using ground penetrating radar. (Journal of Applied Geophysics, vol. 33, n.1-3, pp. 209-225)

Stove G.C., Addyman P.V. (1989): Ground probing impulse radar: an experiment in archaeological remote sensing in York. (Antiquity, vol. 63, pp. 337-342).

Tanaka, T., O’Neill, A, and Goodman, D., Geophysics in Archaeology: A Scrapbook of Worldwide Data, Australian Society of Exploration Geophysicists, August 2009, issue 141, 25-29, ABN 71 000 876 040 ISSN 1443-2471.

Tohge M., Karube F., Kobayashi M., Tanaka A. and Ishii K. 1998. The use of ground penetrating radar to map an ancient village buried by volcanic eruptions. Journal of Applied Geophysics 40, 49–58.

Tomizawa Y. et Al. (2000): Archaeological survey using pulse compression subsurface radar. (Archaeological Prospection, vol. 7, n.4, pp 241-247).

Trinks I., Johansson B., Gustafsson J., Emilsson J., Friborg J., Gustaffsson C., Nissen J., Hinterleitner A., 2010a. Efficient, large-scale archaeological prospection using true three-dimensional GPR Array System, Archaeological Prospection, 17, 175-186.

Trinks, I., Gansum, T., and Hinterleitner, A., 2010b. Mapping iron-age graves in Norway using magnetic and GPR prospection, Antiquity, v84(326).

Utsi, E., 2006, Improving definition: GPR investigations at Westminster Abbey, 11th. International Conference on Ground Penetrating Radar, Columbus, Ohio, paper 83.

Utsi E.,2009. The Shrine of Edward the Confessor: a Study in Multi-Frequency GPR Investigation. In IEEE, 978-1-4244-4605-6/09.

Vaughan, C. J., 1986. Ground Penetrating Radar Surveys Used in Archaeological Investigations. Geophysics 51(3):595–604

Vickers, R.S. and L.T. Dolphin (1975). A Communication on an Archaeological Radar Experiment at Chaco Canyon, New Mexico. MASCA Newsletter 11(1):6-8.

Whiting B.M., McFarland D.P. and Hackenberger S. 2001. Three-dimensional GPR study of a prehistoric site in Barbados, West Indies. Journal of Applied Geophysics 47, 217–226.

Zhou H., Sato M. (2001): Archaeological investigation in Sendai Castle using ground-penetrating radar. (Archaeological Prospection, vol. 8, n.1, pp 1-11)